Geological surveys

Studiile geologice

Geological surveys are aimed at identifying qualitatively and quantitatively the existing problems in the underground by analyzing the surface data (surface geological and geophysical mapping or hydrogeological drillings).
 
The geological surveys are needed especially in the hillside and mountainous areas having as final purpose the identification of the underground geological structure, the lithologic sequence, systems of downthrouws and fissures, delimitation of useful rocks areas, landslides, etc.
Applications of the geological survey :

The applications of geological studies are diverse, ranging from pre-purchase or sale analysis of the land in areas with underground problems, up to the exploitation of useful rocks for gravel pits, of the mineral deposit, coal deposits, etc.
GEOTECHNICAL STUDIES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE
 
In istoria umanitatii exista esecuri rasunatoare de proiectare si executie a unor constructii care s-au putut corecta doar in urma unor investigatii de teren amanuntite astfel evitandu-se demolarea. Necesitatea executarii corecte a unui studiu geotehnic este indiscutabil obligatorie, aceasta constand in: foraje geotehnice si investigatii geofizice, analiza probelor de sol si apa in laborator geotehnic si de mediu, interpretarea datelor de sol si recomandarile de constructie a fundatiilor functie de tipurile de sol existente.
 
The importance of a correctly performed geotechnical study is often underestimated due to a lack of information regarding its real applications, such as :
 
1. Proper sizing of the supporting structure;
2. Obtaining the real costs of construction;
3. Estimation of proper construction time schedules;
4. Eliminating unpredicted problems given by soil instability during the construction works;
5. Extending the life span of a building;
 
PRELIMINARY GEOTECHNICAL STUDY
 
Due to the need of assessing the quality of land from a point of view related to buildings, it is advisable to perform a preliminary geotechnical study.
This documentation can be used for the preliminary design phases (pre-feasibility study for urban development projects). The preliminary geotechnical approval cannot substitute the geotechnical study necessary for designing every working project. It is drawn based on a small number of field investigations, depending on the importance and volume of the investigation.
 
FINAL GEOTECHNICAL STUDY
 
It represents the basic geotechnical documentation used for the design of any building or for the consolidation, rehabilitation and refurbishment of existing buildings. The documentation is an integral part of the technical project required by law, by the Law no. 50 of 29.07.1991, updated on 16.10.2006.
 
Geotechnical studies are prepared based on the norm NP 074/2014 for :
 
- Civil construction works
- Industrial and commercial constructions
- Agrozootechnical construction works
- Hydro technical construction works
- Telecommunications infrastructure
- Transport infrastructure (road systems, bridges, tunnels, railways)
- Urban and municipal construction works
- Photovoltaic and wind farms
 
Geotechnical studies include :
 
– documentare si recunoastere amplasament,
– prospectarea terenului pe care va fi amplasata constructia prin foraje geotehnice / sondaje deschise (sant, put) / penetrari statice sau/si dinamice / geofizica aplicata (electrometrie),
– prelevare de probe de pamant (tulburate si netulburate) si de apa (daca este cazul),
– analiza in laboratoare de specialitate a probelor de pamant (pentru identificarea parametrilor fizico-mecanici si pentru stabilirea gradului de agresivitate a apei asupra betoanelor si metalelor) recoltate,
– elaborarea studiului geotehnic propriu-zis prin interpretarea informatiilor de teren si laborator obtinute si recomandari de fundare,
– verificarea documentatiei intocmite de catre un expert autorizat MLPAT (viza Af), cerinta si intocmirea referatului geotehnic.
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