Studii geologice

Studii geologice

Studiile geologice au ca scop identificarea calitativa si cantitativa a problemelor existente in subsol prin analiza datelor de suprafata (cartarea geologica si geofizica de suprafata sau foraje hidrogeologice ).
Sunt necesare  in  mod special in zonele de deal si montane avand ca scop final identificarea structurii geologice a subsolului,  succesiunea litologica, sistemele de falii si fisuri, delimitarea zonelor de roci utile, alunecarile de teren etc.
Aplicatii studii geologice :

Aplicatiile studiilor geologice sunt diverse, de la analiza precumparare sau vanzare a terenurilor in zonele dificile din punct de vedere al subsolului, pana la exploatarea de roci utile  pentru balastiere,  a zacamintlor de minereuri, carbuni, etc.
In istoria umanitatii exista esecuri rasunatoare de proiectare si executie a unor constructii care s-au putut corecta doar in urma unor investigatii de teren amanuntite astfel evitandu-se demolarea. Necesitatea executarii corecte a unui studiu geotehnic este indiscutabil obligatorie, aceasta constand in: foraje geotehnice si investigatii geofizice, analiza probelor de sol in laborator geotehnic, interpretarea datelor de sol si recomandarile de constructie a fundatiilor functie de tipurile de sol existente.
Importanta studiului geotehnic realizat corect este subestimata, necunoscandu-se  aplicatiile reale ale acestuia ca :
1.    Dimensionarea corecta a structurii de rezistenta;
2.    Realizarea unor costuri reale de constructie;
3.    Preconizarea unor timpi reali de constructie;
4.    Eliminarea problemelor neprevazute date de instabilitatea solului in timpul constructiei;
5.    Prelungirea duratei de viata a constructiei;
Datorita necesitatii evaluarii calitatii unui teren din punct de vedere constructiv, se recomanda efectuarea unui studiu geotehnic preliminar.
Aceasta documentatie poate fi folosita pentru fazele preliminare de proiectare (studiu de prefazabilitate si pentru elaborarea proiectelor de urbanism). Avizul geotehnic preliminar nu poate substitui studiului geotehnic necesar pentru proiectarea lucrarilor, el se intocmeste pe baza datelor geotehnice existente sau pe baza unui numar redus de investigatii de teren, functie de importanta si volumul investigatiei.
Reprezinta documentatia geotehnica de baza utilizata pentru proiectarea oricarei constructii sau pentru consolidarea, reabilitarea, reconditionarea constructiilor existente. Documentatia este parte integranta din proiectul tehnic, impus la nivel legislativ, prin Legea nr. 50 din 29.07.1991, actualizata la data de 16.10.2006.
Studiile geotehnice se intocmesc in baza normativului NP 074/2014 pentru :
– constructii civile
– constructii industriale si comerciale
– constructii agrozootehnice
– constructii hidrotehnice
– infrastructura pentru telecomunicatii
– infrastructura pentru transport (sisteme rutiere, poduri, tunele, caii ferate)
– constructii edilitare si de gospodarie comunala
– parcuri fotovoltaice si eoliene
Studiile geotehnice presupun :
– documentare si recunoastere amplasament
– prospectare a terenului pe care va fi amplasata constructia prin foraje geotehnice / sondaje deschise (sant, put) / penetrari statice sau/si dinamice / cercetari geofizice (electrometrie)
– prelevare de probe de pamant (tulburate si netulburate) si de apa (daca este cazul)
– analiza in laboratoare de specialitate a probelor de pamant (pentru identificarea parametrilor fizico-mecanici si pentru stabilirea gradului de agresivitate a apei asupra betoanelor si metalelor) recoltate
– intocmirea studiului geotehnic propriu-zis prin interpretarea informatiilor de teren si laborator obtinute si recomandari de fundare
– verificarea documentatiei intocmite de catre un expert autorizat MLPAT, cerinta si intocmirea referatului geotehnic

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